INTRODUCTION TO THE JUNG INTERPRETER
The Jung Interpreter is a software package designed to provide a generic reporting facility for instruments, questionnaires, interviews, and self analysis techniques derived from Jungs theory of personality types. Scores for one or more styles, or full profiles generated by any of these assessment techniques are used to quickly produce "expert" reports designed around specific intervention needs. Reports can be generated at different depths and for designated dimensions, and once produced, can be edited and customised by users if desired.
Jungs theory of personality has gained widespread popularity in business, educational and personal insight sectors. Much of this is because the typologies used in his theory of personality are relatively easily grasped and have become readily accessible using a variety of techniques, despite the complexity of Jungs overall theory. Theories and techniques developed to assess aspects of the typology have varied in the interpretation of Jungs theory and its extensions, and the descriptions and terms used in working with the typologies. However, distinct generic similarities in areas measured can be identified across the work of multiple parties, and there is often the common use of certain descriptive terms. Because of its generic and modular based approach, the Jung Interpreter can accommodate results from just about any assessment technique derived from or equatable to the types identified by Jung. Users can define the terms and descriptions that are appropriate to the technique they want to use within the program and work with these definitions. Further, should the assessment technique used cover only one or two elements of the theory base, substantive reports can still be produced.
Initially the techniques used to measure Jungian based personality typology were based on behavioural observations during therapy or field research and interviews. However, more structured approaches began emerging as Jungs theory was increasingly appreciated and applied to aspects of work and education. The most popular method of assessment has probably been through the use of instruments established specifically for providing insight into the Jungian typologies. These instruments range from "psychometrically" supported mainstream instruments to a range of less formal questionnaires. The first instrument to gain popularity was a personality inventory, the Gray-Wheelwright Test (see Wheelwright & Buehler, 1964). This has largely been replaced by the Myers-Briggs Type indicator or MBTI developed by Katherine Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers (Ryckman, 1989). The MBTI has dominated Jungian personality assessment internationally and has received widespread recognition, but a range of other instruments also tap into the Jungian typologies. The Jung Personality Questionnaire (Du Toit, 1980) provides a similar profile while an internationally used instrument developed by Margerison and McCann which focuses particularly on team interactions addresses the area using similar concepts. Less formal questionnaires emerged as popular responses to the increasing interest in Jung and the restricted access to tests by psychological "experts". A book entitled "Please Understand Me, An Essay on Temperament Styles" (Kiersey & Bates, 1978) which contains its own version of a questionnaire brought the Jungian typology concepts to the public more generally and stimulated substantial interest among people who saw it as beneficial in improving personal insight and relationships. A similar kind of questionnaire is provided by Benfari (1991) in a book on understanding management style and by Hogan and Champagne (1980). Besides the use of questionnaires, the use of typologies lends itself readily to self recognition. Options for this type of approach range from a persons self-identification with the terms and definitions described in the literature, to the use of instruments which guide and assist in self-recognition such as that contained in the "People Process" published by Pfeiffer & Company. In the same way as terms relating to the different personality characteristics are recognisable by individuals, they are also recognisable by others who have a close relationship with those individuals. Alternatively they can follow a structured interview guide or similar facility to identify relevant characteristics which reflect a persons profile. These differing ways of covering Jungian derived typologies are likely to vary somewhat in theoretical qualities, accuracy of measurement, psychometric characteristics, coverage of styles or preferences, terminology, and relevance in different applications.
Aspects of Jungs personality theory are reflected in other theories developed in other situations and for other purposes. To the extent that these other "bodies of knowledge" address Jungian type temperaments, relevant results can also be processed by the Jung Interpreter. Care must be taken to ensure the equivalence of concepts and because of the different theory bases any such action should be used with caution. Although only limited coverage of the scope of the Jung typology would be contained in reports, the benefits include a broader exploration of the concepts measured, and the supplementing and correlating of information to provide a richer image of the person.
The Jung Interpreter provides a generic interpretation and reporting facility based on core theory principles which should be applicable across instruments measuring aspects derived from the Jungian personality typology. The programs main strength is that it provides professionally written reports on a variety of areas that are likely to be of concern to users of the various assessment techniques (including self insight). Each report can be individually configured to best suit the needs of a user. It thus represents an interpretation aid which enhances the level and nature of reporting, and does this at exceptional speed. Great care has been taken to make entering the information in the program and generating results as straightforward as possible and users of any of the techniques indicated above should be able to provide added value to their evaluations.
Because of the generic nature of the Jung Interpreter, users should be familiar with the background and materials of any assessment technique they use. This program is in no way a substitute for the manual for any particular technique, and it is expected that users will be familiar with the instrument characteristics, interpretive context of the technique they are using, and basic interpretation details. The reports produced by the Jung Interpreter are generic in nature and should not be seen to replace or substitute for an in-depth knowledge of the instruments used, familiarity with their manuals, and required contexts for interpretation. Indeed, no use was made of any manual of any available instrument in developing the interpretations within this package to ensure that proprietary information would not be included. Because reports in the Jung Interpreter are based on the authors interpretation of a range of available theory and literature, differences in interpretation compared to those provided with some instruments may occur. Users of the Jung Interpreter should be thoroughly familiar with the profiles generated by the program in order to ensure that the generic reports represent the characteristics measured by their particular instrument or technique. Further, the validity of reports will be guided by the validity of the technique used for assessment. The program is aimed at providing a supplementary tool for users who should still have the necessary knowledge and skills in order to use and interpret their instruments appropriately and ethically. A reference list and additional readings are supplied at the end of this manual for users who want further information on literature in the area.
USES OF THE JUNG INTERPRETER.
Reports generated by the Jung Interpreter can be used for numerous purposes and in various settings, such as home, work and educational situations. Some examples of the different ways in which reports can be applied are given below:
T Selection and placement - evaluating an individual's suitability to positions, organisations and work environments, how he/she interacts with his/her colleagues and how a prospective manager should approach him/her in order to obtain optimum performance and motivation. T Team building - identifying how people complement each other's strengths and weaknesses, potential conflicts in values, approaches and communication styles. T Managing individuals effectively - understanding a subordinate's needs, the type of praise that they value, and what sort of criticism will be constructive for the individual concerned. T Conflict resolution between people - understanding the differences in their styles, values, ways of communicating and expressing their feelings. This is equally applicable in the work and home environment. T Training, development, mentoring and educational inputs - the sort of instruction and teacher or mentor a person is likely to benefit most from, what activities he will respond to best. T Personal insight and development - one's strengths, weaknesses and values in any situation, be it at home or at work. T Marriages/relationships - creating greater understanding of the partners and the dynamics involved in their relationship, exploring priorities and values, and resolving and preventing conflict. T Organisation culture change - insight into preferred roles and ways of doing things for individuals and teams. T Life planning and resolving personal crises - answering questions such as "Who am I?" and "What do I do best and enjoy most?" T Career and vocational guidance - finding out what is most important to a person, what would give him/her most satisfaction, the most suitable work environment, strengths and weaknesses.
The use of the Jung interpreter reports is applicable wherever people interact with and need to have some understanding or appreciation of each other. People often have a question about what are the "right" characteristics to have. There are no right or wrong characteristics and the different profiles that are generated each have their own strengths and weaknesses. Perhaps one of the most important things is that a persons profile equips them to deal more effectively with certain situations and approaches, but that people are essentially flexible in nature and often use elements of contrasting styles in the way they handle the world around them. Profiles therefore reflect peoples underlying tendencies and typical reactions. People, however, have the capacity to change their behaviour and the way in which they relate to the world around them.